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Titel: Su[m]ma de arithmetica geometria proportioni...
Verlag: [colophon:] Venice, Paganinus de Paganinis, 10-20 November, 1494
2 vols in one, folio (320 x 215 mm), ff  224; 76, with large white-on-black woodcut initials, full-page woodcut 'tree of proportion' printed in red and black, full-page woodcut showing finger symbolism for numbering, numerous woodcut mathematical and geometrical diagrams, and illustrations showing instruments and methods of measuring; margins of initial leaves a bit frayed and worn, some occasional light marginal waterstaining, overall a remarkably fresh, bright, unsophisticated, and large copy, with numerous leaves with deckle intact, in its original Italian limp vellum binding, manuscript title on paper label on spine, lettered 'Suma d Arithmet' on lower fore-edge, 'B A L.' on upper cover, the vellum wrinkled and outer edge of lower cover frayed. £750,000First edition, a remarkable copy in entirely original condition, of the first mathematical encyclopedia of the Renaissance and 'the first great general work on mathematics printed' (Smith, Rara arithmetica). It is amongst other things famous for first publishing the ideas of Fibonacci; the first published exposition of double-entry bookkeeping; and the perspective theories of Pacioli's friend and colleague Piero della Francesca, who died two years before the Summa was published.Rare in any condition, the example offered here retains its original Italian vellum binding, and the copy is free from restorations or sophisticaions.The Summa is famous for spreading the mathematical ideas of the author's predecessors (especially those who did not get into print) to generations of mathematicians to follow. Of special note is Pacioli's role in disseminating the ideas of the great thirteenth-century mathematician Fibonacci, whose 1202 Liber Abaci famously introduced Arabic numbers to the West. Fibonacci's work only circulated in manuscript, however, and in a Latin suited for academics, but Pacioli had these concepts printed in Italian for introduction to the wider commercial world, and thereby transformed how Europe conducted business. Pacioli even observes that the term for the modern mathematics of merchants, 'abbaco', was likely derived from the phrase 'in modo Arabico' ('In the Arab manner') (see f 19r), not from the abacus counting device (see Sangster, p 116). The Summa is also the first printed book to treat algebra comprehensively and the first printed vernacular text on geometry. It gives the first examples of calculus and of a calculated logarithm, the first printed text on the mathematics of linear perspective, and the earliest printed representation of computation, in its iconic full-page woodcut of finger counting (see Sitwell, Smith, Clarke, and Gleeson-White, pp 91-131). The Summa contains, famously, the first presentation in print of the theories of Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa (1170-1250) 'whose works [in manuscript] transmitted Hindu-Arabic numerals and theories to the West and thus marked the beginning of the mathematical renaissance' (Stillwell). Pacioli's treatise on bookkeeping, De computis et scripturis, contained in the Summa, is the first printed work to set out the method of double-entry bookkeeping, a system which has stood the test of centuries. The author's treatment of geometry is drawn from the manuscript of Piero della Francesca's Libellus de Quinque Corporibus Regularibus which Pacioli studied in the ducal library of Urbino. It is the earliest treatment of Piero's work in print and principal fount (via his publications) for Piero's geometrical and perspective theories (see Ciocci, 2009). Luca Pacioli was also friend, teacher, and collaborator of Leonardo Da Vinci, who wrote in his notebook a list of 'things to do' (ca 1495) including a reminder to himself to 'learn multiplication from the root from Maestro Luca' (Sitwell et al., p 91).Born in 1447 in Borgo Sansepolcro, Pacioli was first schooled in the abbaco system, an applied, commercial education focusing on mercantile mathematics. He became a Franciscan friar in the early 1470s and shortly thereaft. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 3914
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