861789 Treffer (Angezeigtes Ergebnis 1 - 30)
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Buchbeschreibung: Philadelphia, 1782. "A cornerstone document of our national heritage" (Nebenzahl, Atlas, p. 184.) Within three days of the British surrender on October 19, 1781, Major Sebastian Bauman, an American artillery officer, took the field and carefully surveyed the terrain and battle positions at Yorktown. A native of Germany, Bauman had emigrated to America after service in the Austrian army. During the Revolution, he served in the campaigns in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, and was in command of the artillery at West Point, before joining Washington at the siege of Yorktown. Bauman spent six days surveying the battlefield at Yorktown. His manuscript draft was quickly sent to Philadelphia where it was engraved by Robert Scot to be sold by subscription. The map was advertised in The New York Packet and the American Advertiser in March 1782: "Major Bauman of the New York, or Second Regiment of Artillery, Has Drawn a Map of the Investment of York and Gloucester, in Virginia. Shewing how those posts were besieged in form, by the allied army of America and France; the British lines of defence, and the American and French lines of approach, with part of York River, and the British ships as they then appeared sunken in it before Yorktown; and the whole encampment in its vicinity./ This Map, by desire of many gentlemen, will shortly be published in Philadelphia, in order that the public may form an idea of that memorable siege. Those gentlemen who incline to become subscribers will apply to the printer hereof; where the conditions will be shewn, and subscription money be received." This was the only detailed battle plan of Yorktown published in America. As a participant for the winning side, Bauman was able to spend more time surveying the field than the British engineers who were bottled up in Yorktown. Thus he was able to include an extensive area to the south of the town that does not appear on the best British plans, such as those published by Faden and Des Barres. The location of the French and American positions is necessarily more detailed and informed. As it appeared in print before the British plans, it was the first survey of the Siege of Yorktown made available to the American public. Margaret Pritchard notes that the plan was also an effective piece of propaganda: "In addition to providing substantial detailed military information, this map is also interesting for its artistic composition. Yorktown, Gloucester Point, and troop positions are confined primarily to the top half of the map. The lower half is dominated by the explanation that is embellished with ornaments of war. The shape of the scrollwork cartouche surrounding the explanation, with flags and banners that thrust upward from both sides, force the eye to the center of the image. "Here, in an open space, is the very heart of the map, 'The field where the British laid down their Arms' . " It is this field that is omitted from all of the British battle plans of Yorktown. Bauman's plan is a legendary rarity which almost never appears on the market. Its scarcity is due to the fact that it was separately published by subscription only. Relatively few sheets were printed, and very few of those survived. Wheat & Brun locate eight institutional copies, but not one in Virginia. To these, we can add four copies known to us in private American collections. Perhaps Nebenzahl summarized the importance of the map best: "Bauman's splendid map, dedicated to General Washington, reflects his formal European training in topographical engineering. It is the only American survey of the culmination of the great struggle for independence and a cornerstone document of our national heritage." Alexander O. Vietor, The Bauman Map of the Siege of Yorktown ; Schwartz & Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America, p . 199; Degrees of Latitude, 68; Nebenzahl, A Bibliography of Printed Battle Plans of the American Revolution, 189; Nebenzahl, Atlas of the American Revolution, Map 48; Wheat & Brun, Maps and Charts Publishe. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 20696

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Buchbeschreibung: Philadelphia. 1782., 1782. Copper engraving, with original hand-coloring. A "References to the British Lines" is set within a scroll in the upper right corner. At lower center is a Lengthy key or "Explanation" of the battlefield, which identifies and describes eighteen key locations on the battlefield. The explanation is set within a rococo frame, which in turn is enclosed by the flags of the United States and France, cannon, arms, and other spoils of battle. Image size (including text): 25 1/2 x 17 7/16 inches. Sheet size: 27 x 18 7/8 inches. Some minor creases on verso from previous folding, restoration to margins beyond plate mark. Else very good. Within three days of the British surrender on October 19, 1781, Major Sebastian Bauman, an American artillery officer, took the field and carefully surveyed the terrain and battle positions at Yorktown. A native of Germany, Bauman had emigrated to America after service in the Austrian army. During the Revolution he served in the campaigns in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, and was in command of the artillery at West Point, before joining Washington at the siege of Yorktown. Bauman spent six days surveying the battlefield at Yorktown. His manuscript draft was quickly sent to Philadelphia, where it was engraved by Robert Scot to be sold by subscription. The map was advertised in THE NEW YORK PACKET and the AMERICAN ADVERTISER in March 1782: "Major Bauman of the New York, or Second Regiment of Artillery, Has Drawn a Map of the Investment of York and Gloucester, in Virginia. Shewing how those posts were besieged in form, by the Allied army of America and France; the British lines of defence, and the American and French lines of approach, with part of York River, and the British ships as they then appeared sunken in it before Yorktown; and the whole encampment in its vicinity. / This Map, by desire of many gentlemen, will shortly be published in Philadelphia, in order that the public may form an idea of that memorable siege. Those gentlemen who incline to become subscribers will apply to the printer hereof; where the conditions will be shewn, and subscription money be received." This was the only detailed battle plan of Yorktown published in America. As a participant for the winning side, Bauman was able to spend more time surveying the field than the British engineers who were bottled up in Yorktown. Thus he was able to include an extensive area to the south of the town that does not appear on the best British plans, such as those published by Faden and Des Barres. The location of the French and American positions is necessarily more detailed and informed. As it appeared in print before the British plans, it was the first survey of the Siege of Yorktown made available to the American public. Margaret Pritchard notes that the plan was also an effective piece of propaganda: "In addition to providing substantial detailed military information, this map is also interesting for its artistic composition. Yorktown, Gloucester Point, and troop positions are confined primarily to the top half of the map. The lower half is dominated by the explanation that is embellished with ornaments of war. The shape of the scrollwork cartouche surrounding the explanation, with flags and banners that thrust upward from both sides, force the eye to the center of the image. Here, in an open space, is the very heart of the map, 'The field where the British laid down their Arms.' It is this field that is omitted from all of the British battle plans of Yorktown." Bauman's plan is a legendary rarity which almost never appears on the market. Its scarcity is due to the fact that it was separately published by subscription only. Relatively few sheets were printed, and very few of those survived. Wheat & Brun locate eight institutional copies, but not one in Virginia. To these we can add four copies known to us in private American collections. Perhaps Nebenzahl best summarized the importance of the map: "Bauman's splendid map, dedicated. Buchnummer des Verkäufers WRCAM 39545

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Buchbeschreibung: Philadelphia Bradford and Inskeep, 1814. First Edition In Publisher's Original Tree Sheep of "The Definitive Account of the Most Important Exploration of the North American Continent" LEWIS, Meriwether & William CLARK. History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark to the Sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky Mountains and down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean. Performed during the Years 1804-5-6. By order of the Government of the United States. Prepared for the press by Paul Allen, Esquire. Philadelphia: Bradford and Inskeep, 1814. First edition. Two octavo volumes (8 3/8 x 5 1/8 inches). xxviii, 470; ix, [1, blank], 522 pp. With the large folding map in Volume I after Clark by S. Harrison and five engraved maps and plates. Original publisher's tree sheep. Spine with original red morocco labels, gilt-stamped. Expert restoration along joints. Book cover of volume 2 a little concave. Contemporary signature on title-page of both volumes. Housed together in a custom quarter red morocco clamshell case. "The definitive account of the most important exploration of the North American continent" (Wagner-Camp). "Beyond the Missouri River there lay a vast and largely unexplored territory which bordered on the western reaches of the United States. Ceded by France to Spain in 1762 and then back to France in 1800 it was at this period visited only by some British and a few French trappers. The importance of exploring this area had been evident to Thomas Jefferson as early as 1783, when he had proposed the project to George Rogers Clark; but it was not until twenty yearts later that Jefferson, then President of the United States, saw the realization of his idea. The purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France in December 1803 greatly increased the importance of the expedition, which finally began its long journey to the headwaters of the Missouri in May of the following year. That year they wintered in the Mandan villages in the Dakotas and in the Spring pushed on west across the Rocky Mountains and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. Returning by the same route nearly two-and-a-half years after they had set out they arrived back at St. Louis in September 1806 to the amazed delight of the nation which had given them up for lost. Though unsuccessful in their attempt to find a transcontinental water route, they had demonstrated the feasibility of overland travel to the western coast" (PMM). Graff 2477. Grolier, 100 American, 30. Howes L317. Printing and the Mind of Man 272. Streeter 1777. Wagner-Camp 13; 1. HBS 66749. $185,000. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 66749

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Buchbeschreibung: Philadelphia: John Melish, 1816., 1816. EXCEPTIONALLY FINE engraved folding map (36 x 58 4/8 inches) by J. Vallance and H.S. Tanner, laid down on cartographic linen in 40 sections, edged with green silk, with original hand-colour in outline (some occasional pale spotting), folds with marbled end sheets; contemporary half red roan, marbled paper boards portfolio, two pairs of linen ties. THE FIRST AMERICAN-PRODUCED WALL MAP DEPICTING THE COUNTRY FROM COAST TO COAST. Apparently the fourth state, with Cadiz, Washington, Cambridge, Adelphi, Mansfield and Wooster added in Ohio and "Vevay or" added before "Swiss Vineyards" in southeastern Indiana. "An exquisite map, it distinguished Melish as the leading American map publisher of the second decade and placed American maps on equal footing with those produced by the prestigious firms in London and Paris. Incorporating data from state and military maps as these became available, Melish frequently revised and corrected the plates, limiting each printing to 100 copies" (Seymour I. Schwartz and Ralph E. Ehrenberg, The Mapping of America, Edison, NJ, 2001, p.238). "I wish friend John, thee would make a Map of the Seat of Peace" (anonymous, recorded by Melish in his "Geographical Intelligence", 1818). Melish published the first American-produced wall map depicting the country from coast to coast, inspired by a friend who wrote to him "during the progress of war. a very respectable Friend in Philadelphia, when talking of the Map of the Seat of War, said 'I wish friend John, thee would make a Map of the Seat of Peace.' The hint was not lost. The author had seen the good effects of maps, particularly when accompanied by descriptions." (reported by Ristow). Determined to keep his maps contemporary Melish is reknowned for reissuing numerous revisions of his maps: new editions, in a total of 24 issues, of this map were published in 1818, 1819, 1820, and 1823, and Melish himself outlined the reasons for the principal changes in his posthumously published 1826 edition of "Geographical Description": "When the late treaty was negotiated with Spain which had reference to the map in fixing the southwest boundary, it was determined to bring forward an entire new edition of the Map, exhibiting Florida as a part of the United States, and making all alterations that had taken place in the country, up to the time of publication; and from a conviction that Mexico would soon become independent, and would eventually be of great importance to the United States, it was determined to add another sheet exhibiting a complete view of that very interesting country, with all the most important West India Islands. This was accordingly executed, and the supplement was so enlarged as to exhibit a view of the whole West Indies, with Guatimala, the Isthmus of Panama, and the northern provinces of South America, now forming part of the Republic of Colombia." (reported by Ristow). Martin/Ristow 24; Streeter VI:3798. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 72map44

5.

A Survey of the Roads of the United States of America.

COLLES, Christopher (1739-1816).
(New York, NY, U.S.A.)
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Buchbeschreibung: [New York:] 1789., 1789. 83 EXCEPTIONALLY FINE engraved map-sheets (8 2/8 x 6 inches) by C. Tiebout (map-sheets numbered 1-33, 40-45, 45*, 46, 46*, 47, 47*, 48-86), as issued, the majority untrimmed (some minor marginal chipping and very short tears, map-sheet 20 with long marginal tear into platemark, some light browning). Original blue-paper-board portfolio, front cover with printed label, broadside 'Proposals for Publishing a Survey of the Roads of the United States of America' (Evans 21740) used as pastedown as often, most of original ties preserved (chipped and stained). 19th-century red morocco solander box (scuffed, top edge of lid detached). Provenance: William Loring Andrews (1837 - 1920), New York bibliophile, with his bookplate loosely inserted; his sale, Anderson, 18 April 1921, lot 94. THE FIRST SERIES OF AMERICAN ROAD MAPS First edition. "A traveller will here find so plain and circumstantial a description of the road, that whilst he has the draft with him it will be impossible for him to miss his way: he will have the satisfaction of knowing the names of many of the persons who reside on the road; if his horse should want a shoe, or his carriage be broke, he will by the bare inspection of the draft be able to determine whether he must go backward or forward to a blacksmith's shop" (Colles' "Proposals"). This fine and rare set of map-sheets by Irish-born engineer and surveyor, Christopher Colles, is considered the first road map or guide book of North America. It is divided into ten series each depicting the roads connecting the major cities from Connecticut to Virginia: New York to Stratford, New York to Poughkeepsie, Stratford to Poughkeepsie, Poughkeepsie to Albany, Albany to Newborough, New York to Philadelphia (via Trenton), New York to Philadelphia (via Allen town and Mount Holly), Philadelphia to Annapolis, Annapolis to York, and Williamsburgh to Hooe's Ferry. Each map shows twelve miles of road drawn to the same scale (one inch equals four-sevenths of a mile) and is keyed to show the locations of Episcopal and Presbyterian churches, town houses, mills, taverns, blacksmith shops, bridges, and jails. Colles, who emigrated to Philadelphia in 1771, began work on his road maps in 1789, but brought the project to an end in 1792 after obtaining relatively few subscriptions. But in that time, he compiled an atlas covering approximately 1,000 miles from Albany to Williamsburg, and is "invaluable today for understanding the developing road network in the new nation" (Library of Congress online). He was also the author of proposals for creating inland waterways in upstate New York, and a complex system of reservoirs, conduit pipes, and steam pumping engines to supply New York City with fresh water, which was completed in 1776. Church 1236; Evans 21741; Phillips, Maps 867; Schwartz & Ehrenberg 209; Streeter sale 7:3936. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 72lib532

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Buchbeschreibung: Irish University Press, 1969. Hardback. Buchzustand: Fine/ No dustwrapper as issued. Quarto. Near mint - in storage since publication.occasional dent and /or stain on cover but never opened. Any research worker who has used the British Parliamentary Papers will know that the material in its original form presents great difficulties. The work of Luke Hansard on the collections and indexes shows that he was aware of this but even he could not foresee the multiplication of complexities in the years to come.It has been shown why significant collections of Parliamentary Papers are so rare but the few good collections that do exist have seldom been used as they should because of the formidable problems they pose for the researcher. For example, a detailed study of the Slave Trade and its abolition requires the consultation of several hundred folio volumes, many of which might contain but a single important return on one leaf. The physical task alone would daunt the most ardent researcher. How obvious it is that all the material on this important subject should be abstracted and gathered together into one set of volumes, chronologically arranged. Irish University Press did this, not alone for the Slave Trade but for papers relating to some eighty other subjects.IUP editors identified and grouped into sets of volumes all the basic source material on a wide range of significant subject areas from the whole range of nineteenth-century Parliamentary Papers. T 1081 Volumes - mostly original leather covers but some buckram volumes amongst them.these are reprints Politics. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 568956

7.

Map of the United States with the Contiguous British and Spanish Possessions.

MELISH, John (1771-1822).
(New York, NY, U.S.A.)
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Buchbeschreibung: Philadelphia: John Melish, 1820., 1820. Folding engraved map (43 4/8 x 57 inches), 36 segments mounted on linen and hand-colored in a contemporary hand (some separation at folds, intermittent browning and slight offsetting); contemporary green paper boards slipcase, manuscript paper label on front cover (extremities worn with loss of one side strip). "I wish friend John, thee would make a Map of the Seat of Peace" (anonymous, recorded by Melish in his "Geographical Intelligence", 1818). 1820 edition, the RARE LARGE ISSUE, with the imprint reading "Entered according to Act of Congress the 16th day of June 1820." Melish published the first American-produced wall map depicting the country from coast to coast in 1816, distinguishing him as "the leading American map publisher of the second decade and placed American maps on equal footing with those produced by the prestigious firms in London and Paris." (Schwartz and Ehrenberg). Melish was inspired to create a large wall map of America by a friend who wrote to him "during the progress of war a very respectable Friend in Philadelphia, when talking of the Map of the Seat of War, said 'I wish friend John, thee would make a Map of the Seat of Peace.' The hint was not lost. The author had seen the good effects of maps, particularly when accompanied by descriptions " (reported by Ristow). Determined to keep his maps contemporary Melish is reknowned for reissuing numerous revisions of his maps: new editions, in a total of 24 issues, of this map were published in 1818, 1819, 1820, and 1823. Eight variants of the 1820 edition have been identified by Ristow. Melish himself outlined the reasons for the principal changes in his posthumously published 1826 edition of "Geographical Description": "When the late treaty was negotiated with Spain which had reference to the map in fixing the southwest boundary, it was determined to bring forward an entire new edition of the Map, exhibiting Florida as a part of the United States, and making all alterations that had taken place in the country, up to the time of publication; and from a conviction that Mexico would soon become independent, and would eventually be of great importance to the United States, it was determined to add another sheet exhibiting a complete view of that very interesting country, with all the most important West India Islands. This was accordingly executed, and the supplement was so enlarged as to exhibit a view of the whole West Indies, with Guatimala, the Isthmus of Panama, and the northern provinces of South America, now forming part of the Republic of Colombia." (reported by Ristow). This 1820 issue was the first to be published in the enlarged format. Ristow pp. 186-197; Schwartz and Ehrenberg page 238. [With:] MELISH, John. A Geographical Description of the United States, with the Contiguous British and Spanish Possessions, intended as an Accompaniment to Melish's Map of these Countries. Philadelphia: for the Author, 1816. 8vo (8 1/8 x 5 inches). Errata leaf tipped-in before the title-page. Four engraved plates of plans of Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore (some browning and offsetting). Pages 167-182 publisher's advertisements, engraved folding hand-colored specimen map of Pennsylvania, and three pages of instructions and prospectus for constructing state and county maps of Pennsylvania. Contemporary half red roan, marbled boards (rebacked, front free endpaper replaced). Provenance: Contemporary signature of James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States (1857-1861), on the title-page; one or two contemporary annotations to the text and underscorings; Anonymous sale Sotheby's 25th January 1977, lot 82; Charles J. Tanenbaum, Collection of American Cartography. Second, enlarged edition. FROM THE LIBRARY OF JAMES BUCHANAN (1791-1868): "tall, stately, stiffly formal in the high stock he wore around his jowls, James Buchanan was the only President who never married. Presiding over a rapidly dividing Nation, Buchanan grasped inadequately the political r. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 001993

8.

Map of the United States with the Contiguous British and Spanish Possessions.

MELISH, John (1771-1822).
(New York, NY, U.S.A.)
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Buchbeschreibung: Philadelphia: James Finlayson successor to John Melish, 1823., 1823. Folding engraved map (45 x 57 4/8 inches), in 50 sections mounted on cartographic linen, with original hand-color in outline, with small inset of West Indies lower right, and statistical table lower left (intermittent browning and slight offsetting, linen with a few stains); original marbled paper self covers on verso. Provenance: with the ownership inscription of E. Harkness on the front cover. "I wish friend John, thee would make a Map of the Seat of Peace" (anonymous, recorded by Melish in his "Geographical Intelligence", 1818). 1820 edition, the large issue, with the imprint reading "Entered according to Act of Congress the 16th day of June 1820", with "improvements to 1823". Melish published the first American-produced wall map depicting the country from coast to coast in 1816, distinguishing him as "the leading American map publisher of the second decade and placed American maps on equal footing with those produced by the prestigious firms in London and Paris." (Schwartz and Ehrenberg). Melish was inspired to create a large wall map of America by a friend who wrote to him "during the progress of war. a very respectable Friend in Philadelphia, when talking of the Map of the Seat of War, said 'I wish friend John, thee would make a Map of the Seat of Peace.' The hint was not lost. The author had seen the good effects of maps, particularly when accompanied by descriptions." (reported by Ristow). Determined to keep his maps contemporary Melish is renowned for reissuing numerous revisions of his maps: new editions, in a total of 24 issues, of this map were published in 1818, 1819, 1820, and 1823. Eight variants of the 1820 edition have been identified by Ristow. Melish himself outlined the reasons for the principal changes in his posthumously published 1826 edition of "Geographical Description": "When the late treaty was negotiated with Spain which had reference to the map in fixing the southwest boundary, it was determined to bring forward an entire new edition of the Map, exhibiting Florida as a part of the United States, and making all alterations that had taken place in the country, up to the time of publication; and from a conviction that Mexico would soon become independent, and would eventually be of great importance to the United States, it was determined to add another sheet exhibiting a complete view of that very interesting country, with all the most important West India Islands. This was accordingly executed, and the supplement was so enlarged as to exhibit a view of the whole West Indies, with Guatimala, the Isthmus of Panama, and the northern provinces of South America, now forming part of the Republic of Colombia." (reported by Ristow pages 186-197). Schwartz and Ehrenberg page 238. Catalogued by Kate Hunter. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 72map87

9.

Map of the United States with Contiguous British & Spanish Possessions

John Melish (1767-1822)
(San Francisco, CA, U.S.A.)
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Buchbeschreibung: Philadelphia, 1816. No Binding. Buchzustand: Very Good. John Melish (1767-1822) “Map of the United States with Contiguous British & Spanish Possessions” Philadelphia: 1816 Copperplate engraving with outline color 49” x 63” framed This landmark wall map, by John Melish, is highly coveted by collectors, as it is the first map to show the United States potentially stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, giving visual expression to the idea of “Manifest Destiny.” In the early 19th century, many Americans felt it was their mission to expand the borders of the United States westward for ideological, political and economic reasons. This map was published just as the notion of Manifest Destiny was crystallizing in the general American consciousness, and predicted the glorious fate that the young nation anticipated. This grand map of the United States was also highly accurate and advanced in it's depiction of the geography of the United States, as it used information from the travel accounts of early 19th century explorers such as Zebulon Pike, Lewis and Clarke, Thomas Nuttall and William Darby. As Walter Ristow, a legendary American mapping historian, states of this map, “Melish played a foremost role in many and varied sources of the geographical and cartographical knowledge of the period, and presenting it systematically and graphical for the edification and enlightenment of the citizens of the voting republic.” John Melish was a highly educated Scottish merchant who settled in Philadelphia in 1811, eventually to become one of the first great cartographers on the American continent. Melish drew on a number of official state maps to produce this mammoth map of the United States, which was used on several occasions to determine boundary lines between the United States and Mexico. This is a highly coveted first printing from 1816 and was updated frequently over the following several years as new discoveries came to light. Melish died in 1822, and his plates were then used by James Finlayson to publish new states of the map in 1823. It is a classic in the history of American mapping. Buchnummer des Verkäufers sf002765432fra

10.

A Map of the United States Intended Chiefly to Exhibit Post Roads and Distances

BRADLEY, Abraham, Jr. (1767-1838).
(New York, NY, U.S.A.)
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Buchbeschreibung: W.Harrison & Co. Georgetown, 1819, 1819. Fine engraved map, float-mounted and framed (framed dimensions: 52 1/2 x 67 inches), laid down on cartographic linen in 16 sections, with original hand-colour in full. First Harrison edition, first published by Bradley in 1796. The 1819 edition became the official post office map in 1825, used until 1829 (Ristow). Abraham Bradley, Jr.'s Map of the United States was a landmark production, arguably the first such detailed map produced by an American mapmaker and a visual testament to the growing expertise of the country's printers and cartographers after the triumph of the Revolution. An indigenous cartography sprang up and eventually flourished during the nineteenth century in response to nationalism, exploration, settlement, war, rising literacy, and finally, the exploitation of natural resources. Appointed a clerk in the American general post office in 1791 "Bradley's best known accomplishment was his authorship of a notable map of the United States, the first edition of which appeared in 1796, and the second in 1804, following the acquisition of the Louisiana territory. Bradley's maps were hung in many of the republic's post offices and were reprinted in Jedidiah Morse's American Universal Geography. Historians have agreed that the 1796 edition provides the best source of information about the geographical extent of the United States in the decade following the adoption of the federal Constitution. To a greater degree than almost any other single document published during this period, Bradley's maps helped to impress ordinary Americans with the size of the country and to transform the ill-defined frontier into a sharply etched border. "Bradley also coordinated the movement of the mail and took great pride in his almost encyclopedic knowledge of every single postal route in the country. Since most stagecoach firms relied on mail contracts to cover their costs, Bradley was thus largely responsible for the scheduling of passenger service throughout the United States. Though Bradley supported the subsidization of the stagecoach industry, he remained troubled by the potential for abuse. This was particularly true during the administration of Andrew Jackson; Bradley publicly denounced the Jacksonians for their "stage mania," by which he meant their lavish policy of subsidizing the industry with little regard to cost (John, p. 243). "To help keep expenses under control, Bradley personally supervised the payment of mail contractors, a challenging task. Because the United States lacked a single currency during this period, it was difficult to pay agents who lived at a great distance from Washington. To help overcome this problem, Bradley assumed the presidency of the Union Bank of Georgetown at some point prior to 1820. This made it possible for Bradley's signature to appear on the bank notes that the general post office disbursed. The fact that Bradley's signature was well known facilitated the transmission of postal revenue from the general post office to the contractors in the field" (Richard R. John for ANB). See David Rumsey 2929001, Karpinski 59, Karrow 1-1466. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 1016mb21

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Buchbeschreibung: Columbia [Tx.]. Nov. 1, 1836., 1836. [3]pp. on a folded folio sheet. Addressed for mailing (apparently in Houston's hand) on the blank fourth page, with a circular New Orleans postmark (in blue ink), a note "2/3" in red ink, and "10 for. 85" in black ink. Old folds from mailing, two small remnants of old red wax seal. Small hole from a seal, not affecting text. Two small tears near a cross-fold, affecting five letters of text. In very good condition. An outstanding letter from Sam Houston, one of the towering figures in Texas history, written just days after he became President of the Republic of Texas, and a little more than six months after he led Texian forces to victory at the Battle of San Jacinto, which secured the independence of Texas from Mexico. Samuel Houston (1793-1863) was elected President of the Republic of Texas on September 5, 1836, and became President on October 22, succeeding David Burnet, who had been interim President the previous seven months. In this letter Houston notes that "the eyes of the world are upon us," and that Texas is but an "infant Republic just emerging from the political season" with "difficulties and dangers on every side." He goes on to assert, however, that "these difficulties and dangers have been gloriously surmounted, and the bright star of Texian independence is seen moving rapidly onward to the meridian of its glory." Houston makes reference to his victory at San Jacinto, his initial disinclination to seek office, and exhibits gratitude to the people of Texas in investing him with their confidence by making him president of the fledgling Republic. Significantly, Houston writes that "the people of Texas have shown through the ballot box at the late election that they are decidedly in favor of annexation to the United States, and it is a matter worthy to be made known throughout your country." This is a remarkably early pronouncement from Houston on the desirability of annexing Texas to the United States, a subject that Houston returned to in his address to the Texas Legislature in May, 1837. He discusses the "common ancestry" of the peoples of both nations, urges Heyward to use the American press to lobby for annexation, and lauds Texas as a market for goods and produce from the United States. Houston closes the letter by attacking his predecessor and political enemy, former Texas President David Burnet, whom he calls "a poor dog, and I believe a very bad man, if not corrupt." Burnet and Houston were longstanding antagonists, and the two men would face each other again in a contentious campaign for President of Texas in 1841. The animosity between the two became so great that Burnet challenged Houston to a duel, which the latter declined. Houston wrote this letter to Elijah Hayward (1786-1864), a prominent Ohio lawyer and former judge of the Ohio Supreme Court, who had recently resigned his position as Commissioner of the General Land Office in Washington, DC. The relationship between Houston and Hayward is unclear, though the tone of this letter is certainly warm. Houston wrote this letter from Columbia, Texas, which from September to December, 1836, served as the capital of the Republic of Texas. The bulk of the letter is in a secretarial hand; Houston, always an erratic speller, generally preferred to dictate official correspondence. Houston writes: "Dear Sir, I have just received your letter of the 6th August, and it gives me much pleasure to know that although far removed from the most of my old friends in the United States, they still evince some interest in my own prosperity and an anxious solicitude for the success of the great cause of political and religious liberty in Texas. "The eyes of the world are upon us, and the events of the last twelve months have excited the generous sympathies of any patriot heart. We are an infant Republic just emerging from the political season, dark and gloomy have been our prospects, difficulties and dangers have attended on every side, but that gloom has in a great measure be. Buchnummer des Verkäufers WRCAM 47218

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Buchbeschreibung: Audubon and J.B.Chevalier, New York & Philadelphia, 1844. 7 volumes, royal octavo. Period half black morocco over marbled paper covered boards, spines with semi-raised bands in five compartments, tooled in gilt on each band, lettered in gilt in the second, third and fourth compartments (spines a bit rubbed) The first octavo edition of Audubon's Great National Work. This is the first complete edition and the first American edition. The work is one of the "most beautiful, popular, and important natural history books published in America in the nineteenth century. representing the best of pre-Civil War American lithography and giving Audubon the opportunity finally to display his scholarship and genius to a large American audience for the first time" (Ron Tyler). The plates, here accompanied by the text for the first time, were reduced and variously modified from the Havell engravings in the double-elephant folio. Seven new species are figured and seventeen others, previously described in the Ornithological Biography but not illustrated, were also shown for the first time. Audubon may have been prompted to publish the reduced version of his double-elephant folio by the appearance in 1839 of John Kirk Townsend's rival Ornithology of the United States; or, as he writes in the introduction to the present work, he may have succumbed to public demand and his wish that a work similar to his large work should be published but "at such a price, as would enable every student or lover of nature to place it in his Library." The first edition of the octavo work is certainly the most famous and accessible of all the great American colour plate books, and now represents the only realistic opportunity that exists for collectors to own an entire collection of Audubon images in a form that was overseen and approved by the great artist himself. The octavo Birds of America was originally issued in 100 parts, each containing five plates. The whole story of the production of the book, with detailed information about every aspect of the project, is told by Ron Tyler in Audubon's Great National Work (Austin, 1993). The story Tyler tells of the difficulties of production and marketing are revealing of the whole world of colour plate book production in mid-19th-century America. By combining detailed text with careful observations next to his famous images, Audubon proved that he was as good a scientific naturalist as the members of the scientific establishment who had scorned him. Bennett p.5; Fries, Appendix A; Nissen IVB 51; Reese Stamped With A National Character 34; Ripley 13; Ron Tyler Audubon's Great National Work (1993) Appendix I; Sabin 2364; Wood p.208; Zimmer p.22. 7 volumes, royal octavo. (10 x 6 3/4 inches). Half-titles. 500 hand-coloured lithographed plates after Audubon by W.E. Hitchcock, R. Trembley and others, printed by J.T. Bowen of Philadelphia (plates 1-135, 151-500) or George Endicott of New York (plates 136-150), numerous wood-engraved anatomical figures in text. (Scattered foxing, generally to the tissue guards and text). Buchnummer des Verkäufers 26991

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Buchbeschreibung: Washington, D.C. [engraved in Philadelphia by Francis Shallus], 1812. A monumental American map: this issue the first to be published following Louisiana statehood and in glorious full contemporary coloring. The decade following the ratification of the Constitution was marked by enormous growth in the new nation. Perhaps the greatest reflection of that development was in the Post Office. In 1792 at the time of the creation of the Post Office, the nation included 6000 miles of post roads and 195 post offices; by 1800, just eight years later, there were 21,000 miles of post roads (a 250% increase) and 903 post offices (a 360% increase). "From the beginning, the postal system needed to be visually profiled in detail. Accurate 'working' maps were needed for planning and operating mail routes, setting pickup-and-delivery schedules, assisting postal workers in post offices and distribution centers in sorting, establishing new post offices, negotiating contracts with carriers, and educating Washington politicians responsible for overseeing the Post Office . The task of creating the maps necessary to manage the rapidly growing U.S. postal system was assumed by Abraham Bradley" (Caldwell & Buehler). Bradley, born in Litchfield, CT and trained as a lawyer, initially served as the clerk to first Postmaster General Timothy Pickering. Among his duties was to compile information concerning the various routes of the nation. By the time Joseph Habersham became the second Postmaster General in 1795, Bradley, who was retained as the clerk, seems to have been well on his way to producing his great cartographic achievement. Synthesizing information from both published maps (including Buell, McMurray, Carlton, Arrowsmith and Hutchins) as well as information drawn from surveys undertaken for the Post Office, Bradley published the first edition of his map in 1796. That map, on a scale of 1:2,400,000, depicted the country as far west as the Mississippi, showing the location of 450 post offices and their respective routes and including a large table titled "Progress of the Mail on the Main Line" at the lower right. Three distinct issues of the 1796 edition have been identified, published between 1796 and 1800 (Wheat and Brun 128-130); additionally the northeast sheet only of the map seems to have been issued separately in 1796, constituting a fourth issue. The differences between the issues is largely in the number of post offices shown as well as the changing geo-political landscape, i.e. the changing boundaries of existing states or the addition of new territories. "Bradley's 1796 map was soon rendered obsolete. The postal system had grown from about 450 post offices as shown on Bradley's 1796 map to 1,405 post offices in 1804. More importantly, the 1803 purchase of more than 800,000 square miles of the French Louisiana Territory had markedly expanded the country. On August 29, 1803, Bradley wrote to President Jefferson, 'The great alterations which have taken place in the U.S. since my map was first published have rendered it of little use & I have for sometime suspended the sale.' A full depiction of the expanded United States and the inclusion of its hundreds of new post offices were essential for future system planning and route contracting . The new map was designed on a larger scale and with greater dimensions than the 1796 map to accommodate wider geographic coverage and a denser postal network. In fact, at 98 cm x 132 cm on four sheets, it has over 50% more surface area. The expanded coverage encompasses the newly acquired Louisiana Territory as far as 19 degrees west of Washington, but the sparsely settled northern extremities of the United States (the Lake Superior country, for example) are not shown. The geography of the Great Lakes is more accurately portrayed and far more detail is shown in the West than on the 1796 map. The nation's expansion is indicated not only by the Louisiana Territory and its subsequent division into the Orleans Territory and the District of Louisiana (1804), but also by the new Mi. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 25513

14.

The Birds of America, from Drawings Made in the United States and their Territories.

AUDUBON, John James (1785-1851).
(New York, NY, U.S.A.)
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Buchbeschreibung: Philadelphia: J. B. Chevalier, [1839-] 1840-1844., 1844. 7 volumes. 8vo., (10 1/8 x 6 4/8 inches). Half-titles, subscribers' lists at end of each volume. 500 hand-colored lithographed plates after Audubon by W.E. Hitchcock, R. Trembly and others, printed and colored by J.T. Bowen, wood-engraved anatomical diagrams in text (intermittent offsetting and spotting, particularly to the tissue guards and corresponding text leaves at the beginning and end of each volume). Original publisher's deluxe binding of maroon morocco gilt, elaborately decorated in gilt (extremities a bit rubbed). The first octavo edition of John James Audubon's masterpiece, a tall copy with colors very clean and fresh. Audubon created 65 new images for the octavo edition, supplementing the original 435 of the double-elephant folio edition of 1827-1838. The resulting series of 500 plates constitutes the most extensive American color-plate book produced up to that time. The Philadelphia printer J.T. Bowen reduced the double-elephant plates by camera lucida and the resulting lithographs show significant changes in the backgrounds and compositions. The original configurations of the elephant folio were altered so that only one species is depicted per plate. The text revision of the 'Ornithological Biography' was rearranged according to Audubon's "A Synopsis of the Birds of North America" (1839). "The genesis of Audubon's career as a painter may be said to have taken place in 1810, when the Scots-American ornithologist Alexander Wilson stopped in Henderson to seek subscriptions for his 'American Ornithology'. Audubon was approving of Wilson's efforts and was prepared to subscribe when his partner Rozier intervened. Rozier pointed out that the partners lacked the discretionary funds for such an investment and also suggested that Audubon was much the superior artist. Wilson departed without the hoped-for subscription. Not until 1820, however, when he was thirty-five and after years of disappointment in business, did Audubon conclude that he wanted to publish an ambitious folio of all American birds. Accompanying him on the first of several collecting and painting trips was young Joseph Mason, the first of several associates who later would paint at least fifty backgrounds for Audubon's bird plates. Following this trip, Audubon spent some months in New Orleans making a modest living sketching portraits and then as tutor to Eliza Pirrie at the plantation owned by the latter's father on Bayou Sara. Throughout, he gradually began accumulating his bird pictures. "A trip to Philadelphia in 1824 to look into the possibilities of publication and other support was a disaster. Audubon foolishly antagonized the artist Titian Peale and the engraver Alexander Lawson, who were preparing illustrations for Charles Lucien Bonaparte's 'American Ornithology; or, The Natural History of Birds Inhabiting the United States, Not Given by Wilson'. With his criticisms of Wilson's artistry, he also infuriated the Philadelphia businessman and naturalist George Ord, Wilson's friend, editor, biographer, and champion, who became Audubon's lifelong enemy and did whatever he could to block Audubon's success in the United States. Following Ord's lead, most Philadelphia naturalists and engravers refused to assist Audubon with his project. Audubon now concluded that he had no choice but to go to Europe to seek out engravers and printers, and this he did with money he and Lucy earned from teaching the children of the Percy family of Beechwood Plantation near New Orleans in 1825 and early 1826. "Arriving in Liverpool, England, in July 1826, Audubon soon found the support and fame that had so long eluded him in the United States. He went on to Manchester, where the response to his work was tepid, and then to Edinburgh, Scotland, where he found not only more support but William H. Lizars, the engraver he had been looking for. There he matured his ideas concerning his project and decided on an elephant folio on a subscription basis. He took time to fulfill a long. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 72nhr129

15.

Bradley's Map of the United States

BRADLEY, Abraham, Jr. (1767-1838)
(New York, NY, U.S.A.)
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Buchbeschreibung: Philadelphia, 1804 [but After 1812], 1812. Fine folding engraved map, float-mounted and framed (framed dimensions: 38 x 52 inches), laid down on cartographical linen in 32 sections, with original hand-colour in outline and in part. Fourth edition, corrected to 1812, showing both Louisiana and Missouri Territory, established in 1812. The Mississippi River from the junction of the Ohio north to the Wyaconda River has been redrawn due to the public surveys in southern Illinois, exhibted by the addition of Township and Range lines. "Numerous other changes from the 1804 edition have been made throughout the map adding new counties, towns, roads, and changed physical features, primarily in the mid and western portions. Since it was a postal map and needed to be current as to towns, road and counties, it is probable that the map was updated every few years, until a new plate was made in 1819 by Harrison (Karpinski 59, Karrow 1-1466). The 1796 edition of this map (a different engraving) was changed four times in as many years (Wheat & Brun 127-130). The 1819 edition became the official post office map in 1825, used until 1829 (Ristow). All of the 1804 to 1812 editions were originally engraved by Francis Shallus of Philadelphia" (David Rumsey 2929001). Abraham Bradley, Jr.'s Map of the United States was a landmark production, arguably the first such detailed map produced by an American mapmaker and a visual testament to the growing expertise of the country's printers and cartographers after the triumph of the Revolution. An indigenous cartography sprang up and eventually flourished during the nineteenth century in response to nationalism, exploration, settlement, war, rising literacy, and finally, the exploitation of natural resources. Appointed a clerk in the American general post office in 1791 "Bradley's best known accomplishment was his authorship of a notable map of the United States, the first edition of which appeared in 1796, and the second in 1804, following the acquisition of the Louisiana territory. Bradley's maps were hung in many of the republic's post offices and were reprinted in Jedidiah Morse's American Universal Geography. Historians have agreed that the 1796 edition provides the best source of information about the geographical extent of the United States in the decade following the adoption of the federal Constitution. To a greater degree than almost any other single document published during this period, Bradley's maps helped to impress ordinary Americans with the size of the country and to transform the ill-defined frontier into a sharply etched border. "Bradley also coordinated the movement of the mail and took great pride in his almost encyclopedic knowledge of every single postal route in the country. Since most stagecoach firms relied on mail contracts to cover their costs, Bradley was thus largely responsible for the scheduling of passenger service throughout the United States. Though Bradley supported the subsidization of the stagecoach industry, he remained troubled by the potential for abuse. This was particularly true during the administration of Andrew Jackson; Bradley publicly denounced the Jacksonians for their "stage mania," by which he meant their lavish policy of subsidizing the industry with little regard to cost (John, p. 243). "To help keep expenses under control, Bradley personally supervised the payment of mail contractors, a challenging task. Because the United States lacked a single currency during this period, it was difficult to pay agents who lived at a great distance from Washington. To help overcome this problem, Bradley assumed the presidency of the Union Bank of Georgetown at some point prior to 1820. This made it possible for Bradley's signature to appear on the bank notes that the general post office disbursed. The fact that Bradley's signature was well known facilitated the transmission of postal revenue from the general post office to the contractors in the field" (Richard R. John for ANB). P-Maps p874; Ristow p70-1; Schwar. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 1016mb1

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Buchbeschreibung: John Wallis, London, 1783. A cartographic rarity: the first separately engraved map of the United States following the Articles of Peace which ended the American Revolution and the first English map to depict the American flag. A celebrated icon of the end of the American Revolution. Following the signing of the Preliminary Articles of Peace in January 1783, English map makers rushed to issue depictions of the new United States. The most famous of these, the most decorative, and by far the rarest, was the present map by John Wallis. The first maps to be published in England following the Articles of Peace were technically by Carington Bowles and Sayer and Bennett, who published maps on 4 February and 9 February, respectively. These maps, however, were simply reworkings of existing copper plates with minor changes to reflect the treaty. The Wallis map, however, published on 3 April 1783, was the earliest separately engraved map of the United States to be published. The chief feature of this scarce map is its celebrated cartouche, elegantly crafted with portraits of the most famous of American patriots "joined by symbolic figures who pay tribute to America's newly won status as an independent nation" (Deak). On the left, George Washington stands in full uniform walking beside Lady Liberty, her cap perched atop her staff; above their heads the Angel of Fame blows her trumpet, with a laurel wreath clutched in her left hand; to the right of the title sits Benjamin Franklin, inscribing a large book, perhaps drafting the articles of peace or writing the history of the conflict, with the Greek Goddess of Wisdom Athena (or Minerva, the Roman counterpart) pointing to his words, with an owl perched on her helmet, symbolizing the ability to see even in the dark; behind the pair stands a blindfolded Justice with sword in hand standing amongst tall pine trees, perhaps a reference to the American "Appeal to Heaven" flags of the war; above the cartouche is a 13-star American flag, the earliest depiction of the flag of the United States on an English map. Interestingly, the Abel Buell map, published in America subsequent to Wallis, included similar symbolic figures (i.e. Fame, Liberty and the U.S. flag). Cartographically, the Wallis map depicts the newly-independent United States from as far north as Newfoundland to as far south as Cape Canaveral, Florida and extends west beyond the Mississippi. As in the Mitchell map, the individual states are shown without western boundaries. The hand-colouring on the map delineates the American (green), French (red) and Spanish (yellow) boundaries. The map is quite detailed, drawing from a variety of sources including Mitchell, Anville, and Sayer and Bennett , with many towns and cities identified, as well as rivers, lakes, Indian tribes, etc. The map is an incredible rarity. The last copy we could trace on the market was with Goodspeed's in 1937. Ristow, American Maps and Mapmakers , p. 63; McCorkle, New England in Early Printed Maps 783.21; Sellers & Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 754; Degrees of Latitude 69; Fowble 18; Deak 174; Hart 90; Stokes, American Historical Prints 1783-A5. Engraved map, period hand-colouring in outline. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 25514

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Buchbeschreibung: Philadelphia: H.S. Tanner, 1825., 1825. Letterpress half title, 1p. index, and 18pp. text. Engraved title with vignette of the "First Landing of Columbus in the New World." 21 fine hand- colored engraved map sheets (16 maps on sixteen double page sheets, one map on folding sheet, map of United States on four double page sheets. Folio. Expertly bound to style in half brown straight- grained morocco over contemporary marbled paper-covered boards, the flat spine gilt and divided into six compartments by double gilt rules, lettered in the second compartment, the others with repeat decoration in gilt . Very good. A fine copy of the second edition of "one the most magnificent atlases ever published in the United States," engraved during the "Golden Age of American Cartography" (Ristow). Tanner's NEW AMERICAN ATLAS contains the most accomplished series of maps of America that had yet appeared in an atlas. Of the greatest importance were the maps of American states, which were highly detailed and brilliantly colored. While New York and Florida each had their own dedicated page, other double-page sheets showcased multiple states at a time. As the title claims, these maps were drawn up using a careful combination of original surveys and the best existing published sources. The evident high cost of production meant that the publishers took the decision to issue the maps originally in five separate parts which were published from 1819 to 1823. A first collected edition was published in 1823, and this second revised edition appeared in 1825. The maps, all of which are carefully handcolored, include a world map, four maps of continents, a map of South America on a large folding sheet made up from two joined sheets (the index calls for two separate sheets), a map of North America on four sheets, and eleven double-page maps of the various states. The very large map of North America is of particular beauty and note. "This map was a landmark - a great cartographical achievement.Tanner made good use of a large number of intervening map, those of interest here being Humboldt's 'New Spain,' Pike's various maps, Long's map, and 'Pedro Walker's Map of New California.This 1822 map of North America was the progenitor of a long line of famous maps" - Wheat. Contemporary reviews were favorable: A NEW AMERICAN ATLAS "is decidedly one of the most splendid works of the kind ever executed in this country" (UNITED STATES GAZETTE, September 1823). Never "has either America or Europe, produced a geographical description of the several States of the Union, so honorable to the Arts, and so creditable to the nation as Tanner's AMERICAN ATLAS" (NATIONAL ADVOCATE, Aug. 25, 1824). The most enthusiastic report came from scholar Jared Sparks, who wrote in the April 1824 issue of the NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW that "as an AMERICAN ATLAS, we believe Mr. Tanner's work to hold a rank far above any other, which has been published." HOWES T29. PHILLIPS 1376. RISTOW, pp.154, 193-98 (ref). RUMSEY 2892. SABIN 94319. WHEAT TRANSMISSISSIPPI 350. Buchnummer des Verkäufers WRCAM 39227

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Buchbeschreibung: H.S. Tanner, Philadelphia, 1823. Folio. Expertly bound to style in half-calf over contemporary marbled paper-covered boards, the flat spine gilt and divided into seven compartments by fillets and roll tools, lettered in the second compartment, the others with repeat decoration in gilt, marbled endpapers A fine copy of the first collected edition of "the most distinguished atlas published in the United States during the engraving period" (Ristow). Tanner's New American Atlas contained the most accomplished series of maps of America that had yet appeared in an atlas. Of the greatest importance were the maps of American states. These maps were drawn up using a careful combination of original surveys and the best existing published sources. The evident high cost of production meant that the publishers took the decision to issue the maps in five separate parts which were published from 1819 to 1823. A second revised edition appeared in 1825. The maps, all of which are carefully hand-coloured, include a double-page world map, 4 double-page maps of continents, a map of South America on two joined sheets (numbered 6 and 7 in the index), a map of North America on 4 joined sheets (numbered 8 -11) and 11 double-page maps of the various States. The very large map of North America is of particular beauty and note. Wheat writes: "This map was a landmark - a great cartographical achievement . Tanner made good use of a large number of intervening map, those of interest here being Humboldt's 'New Spain,' Pike's various maps, Long's map, and Pedro Walker's 'Map of New California' . This 1822 map of North America was the progenitor of a long line of famous maps" (Wheat, II: pp. 82-87). Contemporary reviews of the atlas were favourable: the New American Atlas "is decidedly one of the most splendid works of the kind ever executed in this country" (United States Gazette, September 1823). Never "has either America or Europe, produced a geographical description of the several States of the Union, so honorable to the Arts, and so creditable to the nation as Tanner's American Atlas." (National Advocate 25 August 1824). Perhaps the most enthusiastic report came from the scholar Jared Sparks who wrote in the April 1824 issue of the North American Review that "as an American Atlas, we believe Mr. Tanner's work to hold a rank far above any other, which has been published." Howes T29; Phillips 1376; cf. Ristow American Maps and Map Makers pp. 154 &193-198; Rumsey 2892; Sabin 94319; Wheat, Mapping the Transmississippi West 350. Folio. (23 7/8 x 16 5/8 inches). Letterpress half-title, 1p. index and 18pp. text. Engraved title with vignette of the "First Landing of Columbus in the New World", 18 fine hand-coloured engraved maps (16 double-page, 2 folding). Buchnummer des Verkäufers 20430

Buchbeschreibung: Algiers, 1801-1804, 1804. A remarkable and fascinating volume, amounting to a thorough primer on how to conduct business with the Muslim powers as the American consul in Algiers, written by the outgoing American consul for his successor. Richard O'Brien was the American consul general at Algiers from 1797 to 1803 and, in essence, the chief American diplomat to all the Barbary states. He was replaced by Tobias Lear, and these two men were the primary American representatives in the region, and to any Muslim powers, during a period of high diplomatic tensions and unfolding military actions. The Mediterranean was a highly important outlet for American trade goods, but attacks from Barbary pirates on American shipping and demands for tribute and ransom from deys, pashas, and sultans led to American military actions against the Barbary states. Richard O'Brien was at the center of all these events, and this manuscript volume is an invaluable work on how to conduct diplomacy and commerce in the Barbary states. It is also highly significant in discussing the importance of Jewish trading houses and business leaders in conducting commerce and in negotiating with the Algerine regency. This volume was given to Tobias Lear as he succeeded O'Brien as United States consul general at Algiers. Though not addressed directly to Lear it was clearly written for him (and descended in his family papers), and Lear is mentioned by name several times in the text. It was designed to give Lear an idea of the status of the accounts of the United States and its consul, and also to give him highly detailed advice on how to do perform the full range of his duties in Algiers. It is a unique and vitally important primer on the workings of the Barbary regencies and the chief diplomatic and commercial challenges in the area. O'Brien discusses a huge range of issues, including diplomatic protocol when dealing with heads of state, details for receiving American commercial and military vessels in ports, the bribes needed to permit commerce to function efficiently, and local customs involving slaves, women, and the Muslim religion. An important section discusses the methods for communicating and working with the Dey of Algiers and his ministry, including the use of an Algerine "drogerman," and the importance of working with leading Jewish-owned trading houses, who have much influence and power within the workings of the regency. The section dealing with American accounts gives much information on the use of the house of Bacri and Busnach in facilitating American trade. Indeed, O'Brien's discussion of the role and power of these Jewish trading houses is an important contribution to our knowledge of the role and power of Jewish traders and business houses in north Africa at the time. Richard O'Brien (1758-1824) was born in present-day Maine, though his family soon moved to Ireland. He became apprenticed to a sea captain at an early age, and was a mariner until 1785. Though without much formal schooling he was an autodidact, and became a skilled sailor. He engaged in privateering on behalf of his native country during the American Revolution, and served as a lieutenant on the brig, Jefferson. After the war he became master of a Philadelphia merchant ship, but was captured by Algerine pirates in July, 1785, and was held captive by the Dey of Algiers for several years. During his imprisonment he carried on an extensive correspondence with prominent Americans regarding events in Algiers. The United States made a peace treaty with Algiers in 1795, resulting in O'Brien's release, and he spent the next several months assisting in the signing, ratification, and implementation of the treaty. In October, 1796, he was assigned the task of concluding a treaty with Tripoli, which he accomplished with dispatch. O'Brien was appointed United States consul general to Algiers in July, 1797, effectively becoming the chief American diplomat to all the Barbary states. He held this position until he was replaced by. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 247109

20.

A Map of the United States of North America, Drawn from a Number of Critical Researches

ARROWSMITH, Aaron (1750-1823).
(New York, NY, U.S.A.)
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Buchbeschreibung: London: A. Arrowsmith, 1796, Additions 1802., 1802. Fine folding engraved wall map in four separate sheets mounted on cartographic linen (each 25 x 29 inches), each in 15 sections, with EXCEPTIONALLY FINE AND DELICATE ORIGINAL HAND-COLOUR IN FULL, and decorated with a large and fine vignette of Niagara Falls lower right (some light browning and offsetting); original blue paper boards slipcase (quite worn at extremities), title on printed paper label on front cover, and sectional titles on printed labels on verso of each section. Provenance: with the contemporary mapseller's label of C. Smith of the Strand on the verso of one section. AN EXCEPTIONALLY FINE EXAMPLE OF ARROWSMITH'S IMPORTANT MAP of America, first issued 1796, this with Additions to 1802, which delineate "the complete length of the Missouri River as well as Mackenzie's journey to the Pacific in 1793. The depiction of the Missouri headwaters, which Arrowsmith studied from Peter Fidler's drawing of a map by the Blackfoot Indian Ac Ko Mo Ki, shows several streams joining into two branches of the Missouri which flow almost due east. The southern branch of the Missouri appears to be the main branch of the river and connects to the Knife River; the northern branch is a good representation of the actual course of the Missouri. Although the revised map still shows a single ridge of mountains in the west, a note near the southern sources of the Missouri states: "Hereabout the Mountains divide into several low Ridges". This note, which was based on the reports of Fidler, Mackenzie, and Thompson, was more encouraging to Jefferson and Lewis than the note about the Stony Mountains on the 1795 map, which, unfortunately, turned out to be more accurate. Arrowsmith's map situates the Great Lake River on the western slopes of the mountain range and connects this river to the Columbia River with a dotted line. Since another note claims that this river can be descended to the sea in eight days, the Arrowsmith map supported the erroneous belief in a convenient route to the Pacific Ocean. Both the 1795 and 1802 versions of Arrowsmith's map served as resources that Nicholas King consulted as he prepared his map for the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Lewis and Clark, in fact, carried the 1802 Arrowsmith map along on the expedition. Thomas Jefferson owned the 1802 map as well as an 1802 edition of Arrowsmith's map of the United States. Arrowsmith's 1802 map of North America was the most comprehensive map of the West available to Jefferson and Lewis and it was probably the most important map used in the planning of the expedition" (Library of Virginia online). From 1795 to 1857 at least nineteen editions or revisions of Arrowsmith's map of "North America" were published by him or his successors. On the subsequent third edition of 1815 this map, the Missouri River system is based on Lewis and Clark's published map. Arrowsmith's 'Map of the United States of North America' is the most desirable from his well noted career. An acclaimed British cartographer, Aaron Arrowsmith drafted accurate, detailed charts that earned him the titles of Hydrographer to the King of England and Geographer to the Prince of Wales, extremely important distinctions during an era when Britain ruled the waves. One of the first great British cartographers of North America, Arrowsmith introduced a new standard of excellence in mapmaking in the late 18th century and almost single-handedly made London the center for the cartographic trade. Arrowsmith built his great success on this ability to attract both commercial and general viewers through his combination of visual and scientific appeal. The most influential and respected map publisher of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Arrowsmith issued maps that were the result of careful synthesis rather than systematic, scientific inquiry. His role in cartographic production was to gather the best available information from a wide variety of sources, weigh the relative merits of conflicting data, and compile the most accurate. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 72map43

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Buchbeschreibung: Philadelphia: John Melish, 1815., 1815. 8vo., (8 4/8 x 5 2/8 inches). 9 folding large folding engraved maps with original hand-colour in outline and in part (some early repairs to verso of first map, one or two maps loose at guards) and 3 full-page maps (text leaves browned and spotted). Original half red roan, marbled paper boards, linen ties (extremities a bit worn, and chipped with loss at the foot of the spine). Second and enlarged edition, first published in 1813, and including four large folding maps not present in the first edition: "Chart of East End of Lake Ontario, and River St. Lawrence from Kingston to St. Lawrence", "Map of the River St. Lawrence. from Williamsburg to Montreal", "Map of the Seat of War among the Creek Indians", and the "Map of New Orleans". The other maps include: "Map of the Seat of War in North America", "View round the Falls of Niagara", "East End of Lake Ontario", "Montreal", "Map of the Southern Section of the United States", "Plan of Quebec", "Map of the American Coast", "Map of Detroit River". Melish published the first American-produced wall map depicting the country from coast to coast in 1816, distinguishing him as "the leading American map publisher of the second decade and placed American maps on equal footing with those produced by the prestigious firms in London and Paris." (Schwartz and Ehrenberg). Melish was inspired to create his celebrated wall map of America by a "very respectable friend" who noticed the "Map of the Seat of War" published here. He wrote to him "during the progress of war., when talking of the Map of the Seat of War, said 'I wish friend John, thee would make a Map of the Seat of Peace.' The hint was not lost. The author had seen the good effects of maps, particularly when accompanied by descriptions." (reported by Ristow). In his Preface Melish writes of this new edition: "The tumult of war having now happily subsided, the publisher presents 'The Military and Topographical atlas" in a new dress, calculated to illustrate the important operations in times that are past. As the materials of which this work is composes, were brought forward at different periods, and under various circumstances, . Previous to the declaration of war, the author had travelled extensively in the northern and western parts of the United States, collecting information regarding the present state of the country; and from the materials procured during that journey, with others that were furnished him in Philadelphia, he compiled the "Map of the Seat of War", which had a most rapid and extensive sale". Cf Martin/Ristow 24. Catalogued by Kate Hunter. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 72lib594

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Buchbeschreibung: C. & A. Conrad, et al., Philadelphia, 1810. 8vo (9 x 6 inches). Frontispiece portrait (browned), three folding tables, six engraved maps at the end including five fine folding, of which two are charts of the "Internal Part of Louisiana," one map and one sketch of the "Internal Provinces of New Spain," and a "Map of the Mississippi River from its Source to the Mouth of the Missouri" (only very lightly browned with some minor offsetting, small marginal tear to A2 just crossing the text, first page of Appendix I torn with an early repair). ORIGINAL BLUE PAPER BOARDS, remains of printed paper label on the spine, uncut (spine worn with some loss); modern cloth clamshell box. Provenance: One contemporary marginal annotation to the second appendix of part one; with Dorothy Sloan 15th February 2006, lot 68 AN EXCEPTIONAL COPY IN ORIGINAL BOARDS OF THE FIRST EDITION OF THE FIRST GOVERNMENT EXPLORATION OF THE SOUTHWEST. First edition of the first U.S. government exploration of the Southwest. This edition contains the first appearance in print of the first maps of the Southwest to be based on firsthand exploration. The Louisiana Purchase was one of Thomas Jefferson's crowning achievements, and in the following four years he commissioned a number of expeditions to explore the largely unknown territory. In 1804 Lewis and Clark ventured westward from St. Louis; Sibley, Dunbar and Freeman explored the Spanish border region in Texas; and in 1806 Pike went to explore the southernmost border region north of New Spain. His orders were to explore the Arkansas and Red Rivers, but by February of 1807 he had reached the upper reaches of the Rio Grande having missed the Red River entirely: "Spanish authorities learned of his presence and sent a force to arrest him and his men. They were taken to Santa Fe and then sent on to Chihuahua. Pike's maps and papers were confiscated, but he managed to retain his diary and journals by secreting them in the gun barrels of his men. Apparently he was able to convince the Spaniards that he had entered New Spain by accident, as he was escorted by armed guard through Texas via San Antonio to the Sabine, where he was released. He arrived at Natchioches in June, 1807, having thus had the opportunity to examine New Mexico and Texas in some detail, at the expense of the Spanish government." (Jenkins). "In the hierarchy of significant westward expeditions, that of Lieutenant Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813) ranks right below that of Lewis and Clark. While his was not the first official reconnaissance of the west, he provided 'the earliest official geographical image of the trans-Mississippi West'. Pike's map and journal.provided the first authentic information about the Upper Mississippi. On the Conejos River, an effluent of the Rio Grande, well into Spanish territory, Pike boldly constructed a fort. It was at this fort that he was arrested and taken first to Santa Fe and then to Chihuahua for a meeting with Don Nemesio Salcedo, the governor of New Spain. The authorities confiscated, among other documents, a manuscript map of the Santa Fe Trail. While in custody of the Spanish, Pike learned 'just how many and what kind of troops the Spanish had on hand to defend the northern provinces,' according to William Goetzmann, 'and he was well informed on the character and personalities of all the Spanish military leaders. No more successful espionage operation has ever been conducted in recorded American history.' Pike returned from captivity without his sketch maps, making the creation of his own map more difficult. He had managed to smuggle traverse tables in the rifle barrels that he and his men were allowed to take with them after being released. These tables enabled him to reconstruct parts of the upper Arkansas, and to his credit, his map is the first to accurately delineate the Arkansas and its tributaries. Nevertheless, large sections of 'A Chart of the Internal Part of Louisiana' (1810), were based on Alexander von Humboldt's map . It is paradoxical that Pike, Buchnummer des Verkäufers 001999

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Buchbeschreibung: Philadelphia: Printed and sold by Francis Bailey, at Yorick's Head, in Market Street, [1785], 1785. Thomas Jefferson's vision of America's western expansion is here expressed to the people of America in possibly the most democratic of all printing formats, the daily almanac. This is one of the very first maps of the newly created United States published in America; one of the first maps published in America to be titled using the "United States [of N.] America" nomenclature; and it is one of the first published maps to make use of Thomas Jefferson's report to Congress of a plan of government for the recently acquired western frontier territories. Excessively rare, the map incorporates Jefferson's names, many of them derived from Indian words, for the proposed new states. Based on Jefferson's report, but with their emendations of it, Congress, then under the Articles of Confederation, enacted the Ordinance of 1784 on April 23, 1784. That same year, printer and bookseller Francis Bailey of Philadelphia published "A Map of the United States of N. America" based upon Jefferson's proposals for new sates in the Northwest Territories for his 1785 Pocket Almanac. The map, engraved by H.D. Pursell (who engraved Filson's map of Kentucky) incorporated not only the provisions of the Ordinance of 1784, but also relied on Jefferson's original report to Congress. Much to Jefferson's consternation, he discovered his report then published without his authorization by Philadelphia publisher David C. Claypoole in the Pennsylvania Packet. And, indeed, Claypoole had also published Jefferson's proposed names for the new states. These proposed names for these future western states are here incorporates by Bailey into his map, the only published map to do so. Jefferson's map first appeared in Bailey's Almanac for 1785 and then in Bailey's almanacs for 1786 (seen here) and 1787. All three almanacs are rare, but oddly this year exceptionally so. There are no auction records within at least the last 50 years for any of the almanacs. Dr. Rosenbach never offered an example for sale via his catalogs but highlighted a copy of this year's 1786 example as #165 in his 1940 exhibition from his personal collection of exceptional rarities at the Free Library of Philadelphia.* In the introduction, Dr. G.P. Winship called it, "One of the most curious maps drawn in America" (p. 9). Dr. Rosenbach's copy resides today in the Rosenbach Museum. This imaginative and ambitious map is widely reproduced in facsimile and in scholarship. But the map itself is an artifact - so curiously issued - and so modestly foretelling Lewis and Clark's Expedition and America's future westward expansion. *Rosenbach: "With the excessively rare engraved map showing the projected states in the West. On the map - are shown the ten states which were planned but never created in the Middle West. The fanciful names given them by Jefferson appear: Sylvania, Michigania, Cherronnesus, Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Illinoia, Saratoga, Washington, Polypotamia, and Pelisipia" (One Hundred and Fifty Years of Printing in English America (1640-1790), An Exhibition - from the Collection of Dr. A.S.W. Rosenbach. Philadelphia, 1940 (JEFFERSON, THOMAS) 24mo. With folding map and folding plate. [80] pp. Original marbled wrappers. Near fine in a custom leather-and-cloth slipcase. Evans 18922 (LOC only); Drake 10193 (Rosenbach, LOC, Rutgers, NYHS); No physical copies on OCLC for this year; Boyd, ed., The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. 6 (Princeton, 1952). Buchnummer des Verkäufers 255919

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Buchbeschreibung: New York: D. Appleton & Company; Philadelphia: George S. Appleton, 1851., 1851. Folio (22 4/8 x 17 2/8 inches). (Title-page and text leaves a bit spotted). One lithographic map "of the Operations of the American Army in the Valley of Mexico in August and September 1847", 12 EXCEPTIONALLY fine hand-coloured lithographic plates heightened with gum arabic by Adolphe Jean-Baptiste Bayot after Carl Nebel (one or two instances of marginal spotting, affecting the image on one plate). Original blue linen, printed paper label on the front cover (some staining, a bit scuffed, endleaves creased). First edition, variant issue in cloth binding, also published in paper wrappers, loose in a portfolio, and in half cloth. George W. Kendall was a printer, a respected newspaperman, and a journalist whose account of his Santa Fe Trail adventures in 1841-1842, following his surrender to the Mexicans, was first published as letters in serial publications. His story, once released in book form in 1844, was so compelling that it went through many contemporary editions and upwards of 40000 copies were sold through the conclusion of the Mexican War in 1847. Kendall supported the admission of Texas to the Union, and was in Texas as a reporter when he heard the news of the Mexican War. "Despite his earlier experiences, he accompanied the armies of Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott into Mexico as a war correspondent. While there, he captured a cavalry flag, was wounded in the knee, and earned widespread praise for devising, with Lumsden, methods for swift transmission of his war dispatches to the "Picayune". The men fitted out a small steamer as a press ship; it met other ships bearing war news, readied the news for printing, and took it to New Orleans, where workers at the "Picayune" rushed it to the press. It was circulated in the city and transmitted by swift express riders to other newspapers in the country. Kendall's biographer Fayette Copeland says that his Mexican War journalism made him famous as "the first modern war correspondent and the most widely known reporter in America in his day" (p. 150). "Before leaving Mexico, Kendall had agreed to write a book about the war that a [German] artist, Carl Nebel, was to illustrate. In 1848 Kendall sailed to France to work on the book, which was published in New Orleans and New York in 1851 as "The War between the United States and Mexico Illustrated". While in France, Kendall wrote frequent dispatches for the "Picayune" about the revolution of 1848. He also met and in 1849 married Adeline de Valcourt, a woman twenty-two years his junior, with whom he had four children. In 1852 he and his family moved to Texas near the present city of New Braunfels, where he became a sheep farmer at his ranch, "Post Oak" (Mary Ann Wimsatt for ADNB). "The very best American battle scenes in existence" (Bennett) Nebel, originally from Hamburg in Germany, travelled to America and lived in Mexico from 1829 until 1834. In 1836, he published in Paris his celebrated work "Voyage pittoresque et archéologique dans la partie la plus intéressante du Méxique", with 50 lithographs and an introduction by renowned explorer Alexander Humboldt. Nebel's magnificent plates in this volume depict the major battles of the Mexican War in dramatic and glorious detail, and include: "Probably the finest lithographic view of Texas produced in the nineteenth century" (Tyler) Battle of Palo. The only Texas lithograph in the work .The Battle of Palo Alto (May 8, 1846), fought on Texas soil north of Brownsville, was the first major engagement of the Mexican-American War and the first U.S. victory (Handbook of Texas Online: Battle of Palo Alto). The view, which shows the action from the perspective of a viewer behind the U.S. lines looking south toward the Mexican positions, has been praised for its artistic beauty and historical verisimilitude. Ron Tyler rates the print as "probably the finest lithographic view of Texas produced in the nineteenth century." Tyler comments: "Nebel adopted a practice in the Palo Alto print, t. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 72lib957

25.

A Display of the United States of America

Amos Dolittle (1754-1832)
(Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A.)
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Buchbeschreibung: New Haven. N/A. Buchzustand: Good. Stipple and line engraving with original hand-coloring. Circa 1791, State # 3. Aging of paper and scattered loss in image and along the bottom legend. Overall a good example. Sheet size: 22 x 18". Inventory#: p427pmat. Perhaps the most important and certainly the rarest of all Washington imprints. Doolittle's work celebrates George Washington's indispensable role in the formation and future success of our nation's federal government. A chain of state seals connected by the Great Seal of the United States encircles Washington, and corresponds to his belief that "our Assemblies in Politics are to be compared to the Wheels of a Clock.if all will do their parts the Machine works easy; but a failure in one disorders the whole, and without the large one.nothing can be done." Engraved in 1788, the plate was altered over the course of eight years with various bibliographic as well as updated versions of the Washington portrait. This third state example shows Washington in full military dress with the arms of Vermont added along with a blank shield on the lower left side. Doolittle played a key role during the American colonies' war for independence and the early years of the new nation. An enterprising printer and engraver in New Haven, Connecticut, he exploited the commercial potential of George Washington's likeness following the 1788 election campaign--the country's first--to create one of the earliest American presidential political prints. Of exceptional size, this work represents a significant achievement in American popular printmaking and marked George Washington's passage from military command to civilian rule. 0. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 000427

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Buchbeschreibung: Government Printing Office, Washington, 1935. Hardcover. First Edition. VETO MESSAGE ON THE ADJUSTED COMPENSATION ACT, 1935. Original blue cloth with gilt lettering and the Presidential Seal in gilt on the front cover; [2], 11 pages. Franklin Roosevelt's first Christmas book (there would be seven more), issued in an edition of only 50 copies. SIGNED by the author at the conclusion of the text. On the front endpaper is the following INSCRIPTION in Roosevelt's hand: "For Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr./with love from Father" and below that also in FDR's hand: "One of 50 copies." From the text: "A government, like an individual, must ultimately meet legitimate obligations out of the production of wealth by the labor of human beings applied to the resources of nature. The herculean task of the United States Government today is to take care that its citizens have the necessities of life. We are seeking honestly and honorably to do this irrespective of class or group." While never achieving the renown of his father, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. was a successful congressman (1949-1954) who twice ran for governor of New York and who was a close friend and early backer of John F. Kennedy. He later became a successful businessman. Obviously a very scarce book on the market, this is an Association Copy of the highest order. Some mild foxing to the endpapers and the title page, not affecting the inscription. Very Good. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 013346

Buchbeschreibung: Howe, The origins of Japanese trade supremacy (London, 1999), pp. 73-74; WorldCat and RLIN (1 copy in Harvard); not in Cordier, Japonica; the Library of Congress; Nipponalia; NUC; Sabin. Second recorded copy of the Kanagawa Treaty of Friendship, resulting in the opening of Japan to trade with the West. The American expection to open Japan was undertaken at the suggestion of its leader, Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858). ''The key document caried by Perry to Japan was a letter to the Emperor from President Fillmore, in which the President requested Japan to open relations, cooperate in the development of trade, assist distressed whalers and provide bunkering and supplies for ships on the California to China run. The Treaty of Friendship (1854) negotiated by Perry provided for 'perfect, permanent and universal piece', and it contained assurances that the Japanese would meet the demands of the United States for safe haven and acces to naval supplies. Two ports, Shimoda and Hakodate, were to be openened for this purpose, and Americans using them were to be allowed to exhange gold and silver for goods 'under regulations for this purpose', and were not to be subject to restrictions on movement as stringent as those applied to the Dutch and Chinese. The treaty does not include provisions for the development of normal foreign trade'' (Howe), but it did provide for the stationing of American consuls in Japan, of which the first was Townshend Harris (1804-1878), an avid student of Engelbert Kaempfer who played an important part in the early economic education of Japanese leadership and among others was the negotiator of the Treaty of Shimoda in 1857 which granted the Americans extraterritorial rights. Fine copy. Extremely rare document concerning the opening of Japan to trade with the West and an important Americanum as well. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 876DLLAMJKGS

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Buchbeschreibung: paperback. Buchzustand: New. Ship out in 2 business day, And Fast shipping, Free Tracking number will be provided after the shipment.Pub Date: Unknown the Publisher: Reposted. within the government. according to internal government published Royal redact seven by the Reposted. Divided into: Imperial redact the Book of Changes compromise. Spring and Autumn legend legend sinks redact books handpicked handpicked the poem legend sinks redact. King James sinks redact. 28 19.5cm. XF.Four Satisfaction guaranteed,or money back. Buchnummer des Verkäufers EE060907

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Buchbeschreibung: Volumes covering 1861 through 1964/68 volume 4. Washington, D.C., 1861-2002. (399 volumes total). Buchnummer des Verkäufers 09889

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Buchbeschreibung: New York, 1846. No Binding. Buchzustand: Very Good. Henry S. Tanner (1786-1858) "A Map of the United States of Mexico, as Organized and Defined by the Several Acts of Congress of that Republic" Lithograph with original hand color. New York, 1846. Framed. Very good condition. Henry Tanner's map of Mexico, Texas, and the area that would become the southwestern United States is a cornerstone document in American history. Tanner's map was the ultimate source for cartographic information on Mexico and the emerging western territories of the United States in the three decades after its initial publication in 1826. The first edition was based on Alexander von Humboldt's 1811 map of the region, Carte du Mexique et des Pays Limitrophes situés au Nord et à l'Est, with some important amendments, discussed below. Tanner's 1834 map was also one of the few sources that included the more recent surveys of Texas empresario Stephen F. Austin, as Tanner also published Austin's maps. For the 1846 edition Tanner updated the western cartography to include Fremont's route as well as topography in California and the Rocky Mountains. Tanner listed his sources, including Humboldt and Austin, as well as Zebulon Pike, William Darby, and others. Many subsequent cartographers based their own maps on Tanner's, and it defined the geographical conception of this part of America for decades. Tanner's most significant adjustment was to redraw New Mexico's southern border eight miles further north at the state's western end and eighty miles further north at the eastern end: a modification that was to have lasting consequences on the political geography of the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican-American War in 1848, John Disturnell's map of 1846, a direct descendant of Tanner's, was used by the governments of Mexico and the United States to draw the new border dividing the nations. The new border was formally accepted with the ratification of the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848. In this way, Tanner's map of Mexico is responsible for a significant northern shift in the Mexican border at New Mexico, and his imaginary line through the largely empty topography of the west was etched symbolically onto the land. The treaty's ratification signaled the shift of 500,000 square miles of territory from Mexico to the United States. In the treaty, both nations agreed, in general, to a boundary that would run from the Rio Grande to the Pacific, giving the U.S. the Mexican provinces of New Mexico and Alta California. The treaty also confirmed the claims of the former Republic of Texas, now known as the state of Texas, to the Rio Grande. The evolution of the treaty map is most important to the history of Texas and the United States, and especially to the history of the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848, the subsequent boundary disputes between the United States and Mexico, and the evolution of the boundaries of the state of Texas. The present map is a very good example of Tanner's exceptionally rare and highly desirable document of the Mexican-American War. Few maps in United States history have had such a formative role in literally shaping the nation. Arader Galleries stocks the largest inventory in the world of Natural history watercolors, engravings, woodcuts, lithographs, color plate books and reference books on this subject. It is our firm intention never to be undersold. Buchnummer des Verkäufers 001416

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