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Africa, Its Past and Future.; Annual Address of Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard, President of the National Geographic Society, at its Meeting, Dec 28, 1888

Hubbard, Gardiner G.

Verlag: [National Geographic Society], 1889
Gebraucht Zustand: Good Softcover
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24 pages, plus folding map. The map depicts the "appropriation of Africa by Europeans". 5.25 inches by 8 inches. Cover has some wear and soiling. No period after "Dec" on the title page. Minor page soiling. This first appeared in the magazine Science, volume 13, issue 311, June 18, 1889, pages 42-50. Cover has some wear and soiling. The last paragraph is prescient, and states: "In Africa there is going on a contest between civilization and barbarism, Christianity and Mohammedanism, freedom and slavery, such as the world has never seen. Who can fail to be interested in the results of this conflict? We know that Africa is capable of the very highest civilization, for it was the birthplace of all civilization. To it we are indebted for the origin of all our arts and sciences, and it possesses to-day the most wonderful works of man. Let us hope that Africa, whose morning was so bright, and whose night has been so dart, will yet live to see the light of another and higher civilization." This is a very rare, early National Geographic Society related item. Gardiner Greene Hubbard (August 25, 1822 - December 11, 1897) was an American lawyer, financier, and philanthropist. He was the first president of the National Geographic Society and one of the founders of and the first president of the Bell Telephone Company which later evolved into AT&T, at times the world's largest telephone company. One of his daughters, Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, also became the wife of Alexander Graham Bell. Hubbard was born in Boston, Massachusetts. Gardiner Hubbard attended Phillips Academy, Andover and later graduated from Dartmouth in 1841. He then studied law at Harvard, and was admitted to the bar in 1843. He joined a Boston law firm, practicing his profession in Boston until 1873, when he relocated to Washington, D.C. Gardiner Hubbard helped establish a city water works in Cambridge, was a founder of the Cambridge Gas Co. and later organized a Cambridge to Boston trolley system. Gardiner Hubbard's daughter Mabel became deaf at the age of five from scarlet fever. She later became a student of Alexander Graham Bell, who taught deaf children, and they eventually married. Hubbard also played a pivotal role in the founding of Clarke School for the Deaf, the first oral school for the deaf in the United States located in Northampton, Massachusetts. During the late 1860s, Gardiner Hubbard had lobbied Congress to pass the U.S. Postal Telegraph Bill that was known as the Hubbard Bill. The bill would have chartered the U.S. Postal Telegraph Company that would be connected to the U.S. Post Office. The Hubbard bill did not pass. To benefit from the Hubbard Bill, Hubbard needed patents which dominated essential aspects of telegraph technology such as sending multiple messages simultaneously on a single telegraph wire. This was called the "harmonic telegraph" or acoustic telegraphy. To acquire such patents, Hubbard and his partner Thomas Sanders financed Alexander Graham Bell's experiments and development of an acoustic telegraph, which serendipitously led to his invention of the telephone. Hubbard organized the Bell Telephone Company on July 9, 1877, with himself as president, Thomas Sanders as treasurer and Bell as 'Chief Electrician'. Gardiner Hubbard was intimately connected with the Bell Telephone Company, which subsequently evolved into the National Bell Telephone Company and then the American Bell Telephone Company. The American Bell Telephone Company would, at the very end of 1899, evolve into AT&T, at times the world's largest telephone company. Hubbard also became a principal investor in the Edison Speaking Phonograph Company. When Edison neglected development of the phonograph, which at its inception was barely functional, Hubbard helped Alexander Graham Bell, organize a competing company in 1881 that developed wax-coated cardboard cylinders and disks for used on a graphophone. These improvements were invented by Alexander Bell's cousin Chester Bell, a chemis. Bestandsnummer des Verkäufers 72717

Bibliografische Details

Titel: Africa, Its Past and Future.; Annual Address...

Verlag: [National Geographic Society]

Erscheinungsdatum: 1889

Einband: Wraps

Zustand: Good

Auflage: [Reprinted from Science].


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