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Titel: Bolt Risk
Verlag: Leapfrog Press
Brand New, Unread Copy in Perfect Condition. A+ Customer Service! Summary: Series foreword. Preface. Introduction : References. Theories of frost action and de-icer salt scaling mechanisms. Theories of frost action. De-icer salt scaling mechanisms. References. Basic concepts related to frost resistance . Deterioration due to frost action. Ice formation in hardened cement pastes and concretes. Required air-void characteristics. Other hypotheses concerning frost action. Special tests. Frost resistance numbers. References. Laboratory tests . Concrete tests: Critical dilation test; resistance to rapid freezing and thawing; Surface scaling resistance; Other test methods; Significance of laboratory tests as regards to the field performance of concrete. Tests of aggregates: Petrographic examination; Sulfate soundness test; Critical dilation procedures; Other tests. Tests on admixtures: Air-entraining admixtures; Water-reducing, retarding, and accelerating admixtures; Fly ash or natural pozzolans. Determination of air content in fresh concrete: Pressure method (ASTM C 231); Volumetric method (ASTM C 173); Gravimetric method (ASTM C 138). Microscopic determination of air content and other characteristics of the air-void system: Fundamentals; Sampling and preparation of concrete specimens. Test procedure and computation of the air-void characteristics; Precision of measurement; Influence of large air voids on the spacing factor; Determination of the air-void characteristics by computer-assisted image analysis system; Protected paste concept. Determination of the spacing factor in fresh concrete. References. Influence of materials and mix characteristics : Introduction. Influence of materials; Main constituents; Admixtures; Mineral additives; Other products. Frost behaviour of coarse aggregates: Frost susceptibility of aggregates; Influence of the porosity of aggregates. Surface deterioration due to aggregates and D-line cracking; Petrographic nature of aggregates. Influence of mix composition: Water/cement ratio; Mixture proportions. High-strength concrete. Special products. references. Air entrainment . Basic principles. Chemical used as air-entraining agents. Characteristics of the air-void system in hardened concrete. Production and stability of the air-void system. Paramenters affecting air entrainment: Cement and mineral additives; Aggregates; Admixtures; Water; Mix composition and characteristics; Mixing, placing and finishing techniques. Practical considerations. Other effects of air entrainment. References. Exposure conditions and field performance . Exposure conditions. Field performance. References. Frost durability of dry concretes . The different types of dry concretes. Internal structure of dry concretes. Air-entrainment in dry concretes. Frost resistant. Summary. References. How to make a durable concrete . Choice of materials. Characteristics of the air-void system. Mixture characteristics. Mixing procedures. Transportation and placing techniques. Curing. Protective coatings and sealers. Design and maintenance of concrete structures. Cold weather concreting. Codes of practice, References. Index. Buchnummer des Verkäufers ABE_book_new_0972898468
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