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_ 'The Connection Between Spin and and Statistics'. Pp. 716-722 in: The Physical Review, Vol. 58, Second Series, No. 8, Oct. 15, 1940.

PAULI, Wolfgang (1900-1958):

Verlag: New York: Published for the American Physical Society by the American Institute of Physics, 1940., 1940
Gebraucht Zustand: Fine Softcover
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First Edition. Entire issue offered, pp. 665-760. Original printed wrappers. Near Fine. Wolfgang Pauli: Nobel Prize, Physics, 1945, 'for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle.' 'In the case of the exclusion principle there can never exist a limiting case where such operators can be replaced by a classical field. Using this formalism of Wigner and Jordan I could prove under very general assumptions that a relativistic invariant theory describing systems of like particles with integer spin obeying the exclusion principle would always lead to the noncommutability of physical quantities joined by a spacelike vector [note 23 here]. This would violate a reasonable physical principle which holds good for particles with symmetrical states. In this way, by combination of the claims of relativistic invariance and the properties of field quantization, one step in the direction of an understanding of the connection of spin and symmetry class could be made' (Pauli, 'Exclusion principle and quantum mechanics', Nobel Lecture, December 13, 1946; note 23 cites the paper offered here and Pauli, Ann. Inst. Poincaré, 6 (1936) 137). 'The Spin-Statistics relation was first formulated in 1939 by Markus Fierz [1], and was rederived in a more systematic way by Wolfgang Pauli [2]' (Wikipedia; [2] = paper offered here). 'Pauli's 1940 proof . . . has been the standard for almost sixty years' (Ian Duck & E. C. G. Sudarshan, Pauli and the Spin-statistics Theorem, 1998, p. x). 'It was thinking about how to reconcile the Klein Gordon and Dirac equations, and the existence of all these particles (how many more might be discovered?) that led Pauli to one of the most subtle concepts of modern physics the spin statistics theorem. In his 1940 paper, Pauli identified a vital connection between spin and quantum statistics (in the 1920s, it had been realized that something more than the Maxwell Boltzmann variety was needed at the quantum level). According to Pauli, particles of half-integer spin obey Fermi Dirac statistics (and, hence, are now called 'fermions') and those of integer spin obey Bose Einstein statistics ('bosons'). Mathematically speaking, the quantization of fields with half-integer spin relies on 'plus' commutation relations, whereas that of fields with integer spin uses 'minus' commutation relations. Put another way, the wavefunction of a system of bosons is symmetric if any pair of bosons is interchanged, but is antisymmetric for interchanged particles in a system of fermions. Subtle indeed, but from Pauli's spin statistics connection arises the exclusion principle for fermions, with its implications for atomic structure, and a 'non-exclusion' principle for bosons many bosons can adopt the same quantum state at once, as happens in a Bose Einstein condensate. Further particle discoveries since 1940 and the subsequent building of the 'standard model' have also served to confirm that nature works with both integer and half-integer spins' (Alison Wright, 'Milestone 7 (1940): Spin statistics connection', Milestones Timeline, 28 Feb. 2008, Nature Web site). The article 'was a re-elaboration of Pauli's report at the Solvay Conference of 1939' (Michela Massimi, Pauli's Exclusion Principle: The Origin and Validation of a Scientific Principle, 2005, p. 140). Also see Sin-Itiro Tomonaga & Takeshi Oka, The story of spin, 1997, p. 131ff. Bestandsnummer des Verkäufers 17704

Bibliografische Details

Titel: _ 'The Connection Between Spin and and ...

Verlag: New York: Published for the American Physical Society by the American Institute of Physics, 1940.

Erscheinungsdatum: 1940

Einband: Soft cover

Zustand: Fine

Zustand des Schutzumschlags: No Jacket

Auflage: 1st Edition


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